COFFEE ARABlCA VARIETIES
An excerpt from a paper published by
Mr. J. Orlando Fabres
certified cupper and quality control head for Yauco Selecto
Ideal characteristics of a coffee variety:
1) uniformity in size - tall or short (for picking).
2) abundance of lateral branches, secondary and tertiary.
3) short knots, abundance of knots.
4) high number of flowers per knot and great capacity to produce flower buds.
5) good regenerating power for leaf production.
6) acute angles forming between branches and knots.
7) good root system.
8) early maturation and production for tree.
9) tolerance or resistance to plagues and diseases.
10) less than 5% of empty beans.
Examples of Varieties and their Characteristics:
|Known locally as arábigo or criollo, originally from Ethiopia.Wide spread cultivation, limited yield. In maturity it can reach ID to 12 feet of height.Branches grow in 60 degree angles from the trunk.Space between knots is large in comparison.Narrow leaves without much shine.The fruit is elongated with good quality and good cherry/bean %. New leaves will have a brownish appearance (tan).|
|Originally from the island of La Reunion.Wide spread cultivation on the higher mountain region.Tall tree. Branches grow in 45 degree angles from the trunk. Space between knots is smaller than in the typical.New leaves will have a light green appearance. Good yield, needs early pruning and wide spacing.|
|Originally from Brazil, possibly a cross between borbon and typica. Tall tree. Small space between knots. Branches grow in 45 degree angles from the trunk. New leaves will have a bronze color or sometimes green.Will mature after the typica and the borbon. Adapts better to higher altitudes.|
|Originally from Brazil, a mutation of the borbon. Shorter and more compact tree. The branches form a 45 degree angle with the trunk. Space between the knots is very small. New leaves are light green. The leaves are more round and shiny, fruit looks like the borbon. Has high yield and matures late, good wind resistance.|
|Originally from El Salvador. A mutation of the borbon (like the Caturra). Early maturing of beans. Short knots, many secondary branches, heavy amount of foliage. Adapts well to sandy soils. Very resilient.|
|Originally from Brazil. A cross between the Mundo Novo and the Caturra. It is a short tree, but taller than the Caturra. Branches form a 45 degree angle with the trunk. Short knots. New leaves are light green. Round leaves with great shine. Late maturing. Handles wind very well.|
Coffee facts worth knowing:
THE MATURING OF THE COFFEE TREE: Harvesting and Pruning
Issues associated with young plantings:
a) disease control
b) spacing at time of planting
c) careful picking to avoid excessive loss of leave
d) yield will continue to increase until year 5.
Issues associated with mature trees:
a) continued growth of branches creates a tunnel effect.
b) growth is limited due to decrease sunlight and competition among branches.
c) picking at the higher branches is more difficult.
d) loss of beans to drop is caused by difficulty of harvesting
Pruning for mature trees:
a) pruning to occur at 24 to 36 inches above soil level.
b) preferably a leader branch (with leaves) will be allowed until growth of new branches begins.
c) The branch will be removed once new branches with leaves support the tree.
d) Two or three leading branches will be allowed to grow.
e) Tree will not produce in next year and will begin to produce for the following crop.
f) The cycle can be repeated at the 5 to 7 year limit for best results.
YAUCO SELECTO: Facts about the wet Beneficiado
1) To preserve the quality of the bean that has been nurtured at the tree and carefully selected for picking.
2) To take the bean from a 65% humidity content inside the cherry to a 12% humidity content and preserve it in the dry parchment that surrounds the bean.
What the wet beneficio can do:
1) It can separate ripe beans from green or empty beans.
2) It can separate the actual bean from the cherry that has acted as a natural "womb".
3) It can preserve the taste (not improve the taste) of the bean.
What the wet beneficio cannot do:
1) Improve the quality of a poor bean (coffee).
Harvested Arabica consits roughly of:
7% parchment and skin
It takes about 500 to 600 pounds of cherry to create a 100 pound bag of coffee.
The Wet Process
Coffees processed through the wet process are known as "washed coffees". The wet process produces a better color, taste and flavor of the bean. It carries a premium price over the dry method coffee.
1) Coffee cherries are weighed at the entry station. Coffee must be received and processed the same day to avoid excessive fermentation.
2) Coffee cherries are deposited at the Receiving Tank. If the receiving tank is the type that is filled with water, green beans can be floated at this time and skimmed off the top of the tank. Another option is to use the channel system after the coffee passes through the coffee separator. The channel system is used at this beneficio.
3) Coffee is then passed through the first water stage, the "despredador", which takes away any foreign objects through a "water fall" system.
4) The cherries then pass to the Coffee Separator' which removes the cherry from the coffee beans through friction and texture. It also separates some of the green coffee as green coffee cherry is hard and will not release the beans when applied pressure. A red ripe cherry will easily allow the beans to come out when applied pressure.
5) Once the beans are removed from the cherry, the actual cherry is taken out using the cherry cleaning equipment.
6) The remaining beans are sent to the floating channels where water is used to float the lighter and unwanted remaining vain or green beans. The ripe beans are more dense and thus go to the bottom of the channels and through holes to another channel.
7) After the channels, the humid classifier will take away any further unwanted coffee through a screen system.
8) Any green or unwanted coffee is sent to a 2nd class coffee depulper and sent to dry at the direct heat drying tanks.
9) Coffee that is chosen for its ripeness and texture will be then sent to the aquapulper (for clients with this preference) or fermentation tanks (for clients with this preference)
10) Coffee is then washed several times to ensure that it is clean.
11) Coffee is sent to the drying drum where it will remain for up to 60 hours at a maximum temperature of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The coffee is closely monitored (day and night) and taken out when it reaches the desired humidity level.
12) The coffee is then bagged and tagged by lot number and humidity level. Samples are pulled for cupping. The beans will remain in parchment until an order is placed.
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